PUBLIC HEARING Friday January 31, 2020
"No man’s life, liberty, or property are safe while the Legislature is in session” Gideon Tucker, Judge.
CT GOVERNMENT: Legislative branch, our look at the Executive branch: State Bond Commission: Channel 79 also on Youtube; QUICK LINK TO WEATHER
Our favorite place to find stuff out - go to the C.G.A. website HERE:
INTERIM NEWS including Tolls Session eventually...
Short Session (Feb. 5th to May 6th) of 2020: Office of Legislative Research (OLR) "major issues" report
Previously: LONG SESSION 2019. NEW LAWS AND TAXES: LINK TO MINORITY LEADER OF THE SENATE.
WESTON TOWN PLANS OF C&D, OVER TIME. 2020 Draft approved by P&Z, April 4th Public Hearing
Go to our full report on Town Plans thru the years here - our own review.
FACILITY OPTIMIZATION COMMITTEE
The Town of Weston planning for the future of the Center of Town since 2010...
- MISSION OF THIS WEBSITE;
- LATEST GIS MAPS FROM WestCOG: https://westcog.maps.arcgis.com/apps/MapJournal/index.html?appid=52e7d0895ce94129854cabc1dc63ee22#
- LINK to Town of Weston YouTube channel. To catch up on meetings you may have missed.
- What is our area of interest as well as expertise?
- GLOBAL FACILITIES come again?
- What is our - other-than local boards and commissions "news beat?"
- LATEST ABOUT TOWN COLUMN HERE
- If it is an odd numbered year, it is time for local elections.
- GET READY FOR 2020 CENSUS DATA: https://ask.census.gov/prweb/PRServletCustom/YACFBFye-rFIz_FoGtyvDRUGg1Uzu5Mn*/!STANDARD?pyActivity=pyMobileSnapStart&ArticleID=KCP-5497
Professional background in city planning, original research on downtown pedestrian malls published. Long experience in public policy matters, with degrees to match.
TOWN OF WESTON FACEBOOK PAGE:
NEW FOR ANNOUNCEMENTS AND NEIGHBOR INPUT - CT PATCH - Weston - Redding: https://patch.com/connecticut/weston-ct
CALENDAR of Weston-only schedule of activities.
TV news: http://connecticut.news12.com;
OUR FAVORITE SOURCE - CT-N link;
AND...CT NEWS JUNKIE: http://ctnewsjunkie.com/;
PLUS CT MIRROR: http://www.ctmirror.org/home;
The New London DAY;
The Advocate Online;
The Waterbury Republican-American;
WESTON'S "NEWSPAPER OF RECORD" - Public Notices on "Classifieds" page - Norwalk HOUR.
Yale Daily News;
New Haven REGISTER;
NEW - POLLING LINK: https://www.realclearpolitics.com/epolls/latest_polls/
Alaska Dispatch News: http://www.adn.com/;
WHAT'S UP IN COURT? https://www.courthousenews.com/
Note this is a national organization - https://www.publicintegrity.org/about
Another look at national news - https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/
* = Observations from news accounts from elsewhere since 1998 are continually being evaluated off-line and where appropriate when specific items relate to the new more local mission of About Weston; when timely, included by reference in current discussions.
TOWN CLERK'S OFFICE FOR LOCAL AND REGIONAL PUBLIC NOTICE: About Town summaries here.*
This way to all the information you will need to follow government. When does a "public notice" have to be published?
IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER ("169 towns" is first) - these pages are updated from time to time with news as it happens from public sources.
A, B, C , D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O (online news), P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z. ("Z" for "zoning")
169 Towns in CT
Sec'y of the State's Calendar 2020: https://portal.ct.gov/-/media/SOTS/ElectionServices/Calendars/2020Election/2020-Calendar.pdf?la=en
- Yes, the Judicial Branch did this! With links: http://www.jud.ct.gov/lawlib/ordinances.htm
- Towns in CT land cover: https://clear.uconn.edu/
- Weston data 2015: http://www.pschousing.org/housingprofiles2015/PSC_2015HsgProfile_Weston.pdf; same source report: http://www.ctnewsjunkie.com/archives/entry/new_report_finds_demand_for_affordable_housing_increasing/
- How many of the 169 have reached 10% affordable housing? 31 in 2010. Update - HOT BUTTON FOR WESTON.
Did you miss the About Town column last week? Do you need hot tips on what is going on in town this week and last?
The built environment...LINK HERE TO ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS: http://www.westonct.gov/media/file/LPA_Weston-Library_.pdf
About Town once again attending Building Committee meetings.
NEW - resurrected Building Committee notes from April 24, 2000 to February 12, 2003; Architecture - because we're interested in this subject.
And urban design, which may be discussed during construction projects here.
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
REPORTS - impact for years and years. Light on more recent related environmental matters. CRUMBLING FOUNDATIONS in Implementer.2018.
Aspetuck Land Trust
All fields are not natural; The Nature Conservancy ("Devil's Den" at right) really defines Weston.
WESTON BUDGET PROCESS: May not be over until the Legislature is...
Our first concern. But are we immune from negative "externalities" as they say in economics?
- FY21 should be much more complicated because so many unknowns - NEW PAGE HERE.
- Weston Budget Process FY20. OVER..
- Where does reval 2019 fit in?
- But that doesn't mean we stop spending via "special appropriations" until we hit the 2% cap max. (by Charter) for special or additional appropriations (of current budget).
NEW: CT PAYROLL COMMISSION
Will be hosting public hearings once they figure out what this is really all about.
CT PENSION SUSTAINABILITY
Link to information from the...PENSION SUSTAINABILITY COMMISSION
CT PENSION SUSTAINABILITY COMMISSION - meeting twice a month, way "out of the box" thinking!
We note that at least one participant was not re-elected and the State of CT Treasurer is retiring (both not shown above).
When the State of CT runs out of money, then what?
Municipal Accountability Review Board (no longer headed by Ben Barnes, who has gone on to work for CCSU)
NOT GOING AWAY
Page dealing with retirement security or insecurity?
IN ORDER TO GET IN THE MOOD: https://ctmirror.org/2017/01/30/a-legacy-of-debt-connecticut-standing-on-its-own-fiscal-cliff/
Like Cinderella's coach - gone. Still promoting report however. "'The more you make, the more you pay'" said one legislator.
WHAT STARTS WITH "C?"
- Capital Budget
- Cell Towers
- CGA (General Assembly - THE LEGISLATURE)
- CT BOND COMMISSION
- CT EXECUTIVE BRANCH
- CT JUDICIAL BRANCH
Capital Budgeting in Weston - scan down this page.
LINK TO: SHEFF RESUMES AND C.C.J.E.F. STORIES.
Link to planning for Census 2020
"The Horses Mouth" for data or better yet, the quick number for 2010 here.
How much did Weston grow according to the U.S. Census between 2000 and 2010? ANS. 142 people. Census change 2000-2010 = 10,037 to 10,179
Visit some explanatory links, research and special maps below:
- NEW U.S. Census 2020 page;
- U.S. Census of Population in Weston
- U.S. Census of Housing in Weston
- U.S. CENSUS OF POPULATION
- U.S. CENSUS OF HOUSING
- HOW DOES THE CENSUS BUREAU DEVELOP POPULATION ESTIMATES?
- Projections? Not worth the paper they're written on - yes or no? .
- Regional tax sharing and regionalizing services - not a new idea, fwiw.
PLEASE NOTE: We suspended our attendance at WESTCOG. Why? Because the action most of interest in now at the Capitol.The MORE you look the MORE you see...http://www.housedems.ct.gov/node/2746
We now "attend" via CT-N, meetings of ACIR and CT Councils of Governments.
Regional cooperation should be voluntary and we assume if there are any changes they will come from the Legislature.
C.G.A. LEGISLATIVE BRANCH : AND HOW IT RELATES TO OTHER BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT - EXECUTIVE AND JUDICIAL
C.G.A. news we find : Our latest interview (pre-Session) still running because more than three months in, the Legislature has not decided what to do...
Excellent Caucus information session.
STATE OF CONNECTICUT WEBSITE
EXECUTIVE BRANCH - Public Meeting calendar
THE CT JUDICIAL BRANCH
Our "Education" sub-page has the "blow-by-blow" on what the Courts are up to related to education.
- "The judicial branch has eliminated the four-person Supreme Court police force..." reports the CT MIRROR....not so fast!
- New CT Chief Justice Richard Robinson, after Judiciary does not endorse first nominee, who was rejected by Senate; C.C.J.E.F. story latest - end of it?.
- Judicial Branch...as it relates to others branches and everyday people...
- SHEFF decision: And here comes Sheff for another round beginning Thursday, Sept. 28, 2017...and we ask, will the Legislature be watching?
Environmental Justice to the fore in 2019 Session? How about this action?
DRINKING WATER 2019
Drought and now storm water regulations - are they connected? CHECK OUT HISTORY HERE
Particularly important to a town with no public water lines or sewer service and environmentally necessary to stay that way. But what's this?
CONNECTICUT SPECIAL EDUCATION COST MODEL TASK FORCE. CONNECTICUT PARTNERSHIP
Weston Ed news here.
Weston High School sports viewing;
LATEST (INCLUDES 2016-2017 DATA) - CT MIRROR STUDY COMPARING SCHOOLS, STATEWIDE AND DRG
HOLY DEFUNDING BATMAN!!!
Education and its CT funding landscape, NEWER news; how much do Charter Schools grow in a bleak financial situation? New Federal law suit; And Educational Technology
How many kids in the pipeline issue to re-emerge? Now?: And the relation among local, regional and state levels of government.
Lighted fields issue...
High School auditorium projects.
Previous entities created by earlier Legislatures to deal with BUDGET CRISIS
FINANCE BOARD ACTIVITY IN THE WESTON BUDGET PROCESS HERE
Follow Weston Budget Process here. Link to the now finished CT Spending Cap Commission; work of CT Tax Panel, which we followed .
AND OTHER WATCH DOG AGENCIES
This way to all the information you will need to follow local government and protect your freedoms...
Freedom of Information Commission and its sister agencies - S.E.E.C. and Ethics found here, too. Firearms Permit Examiners Board ;
"HOW TO" handy tips - "tweaks" in procedures suggested Link: http://www.ct.gov/foi/cwp/view.asp?a=3171&Q=531378#ObtainRecords
"GOVERNMENT" at all three levels - Federal, State and Local.
House has Impeached...Trial in Senate first week...over - President's lawyers begin.
"The Gazebo" - Town Green.
Weston's gathering place to be linchpin of make-over for Central Part of Town.
FOCUS FOR C.G.A. 2020?
Health Care 2015
We are always concerned about the structural relationships - can health care be the bridge?
Reports on Weston HDC
Historic Preservation and Re-Use; Historic Districts and Adaptive Re-Use
Highlights from previous research (internet attack, nuclear security); BOTNET ATTACK OF THE MACHINES
- What has happened since Town purchase with Nature Conservancy - organized for best historical use.
- Relates to historic preservation. And re-use.
- AND ALT
LONG ISLAND SOUND AND THE BLUE PLAN - WHERE DOES WESTON FIT IN?
THE MILLENIALS: What is in their future? Read study here.
NATURAL RESOURCES - OUR VERY OWN SUSTAINABILITY STUDY 2012
Town of Weston Sustainability Committee.
OUR PAGE ON THE WATER CYCLE AND RELATED MATTERS
NEW to us from C.G.A. - Rural Caucus
NEW to us from C.G.A. - Coastal Caucus
Preserving open space lands including your natural "lawn"...
Related around CT...via safe household hazardous waste disposal.
WESTON ALWAYS INTO GROUNDWATER - MINI - STUDY ARSENIC, 2017.
REVIVED AND NOW WE'RE AHEAD OF THE GAME
Planning & Zoning matters under "Z"
PUBLIC SAFETY COMPLEX 2019 at Building Committee;
Weston meetings related to Police new.
"Enhanced 9-1-1" Commission quarterly meetings (statewide): NEW Our reports;
Planning use for drones? Purchase of drone in FY'20 capital budget
Gun registration story here, too.
Power Outage Blog
How does this relate to CT Tax Panel - who discussed the CT "over-reliance" on the Property Tax.
AN ARTISTIC E- RE-VISIT;
SEATTLE LIKE WESTON CT?
Full consolidation of Seattle pages online now; Whidbey planning board news, comparison of population from previous About Weston website...how is Weston like Whidbey Island? Nothing new for a while...
S P E C I A L T O W N M E E T I N G S . R E F E R E N D A , B U D G E T P R O C E S S B Y F Y Y E A R O N T H I S S I T E T O O
Special Town Meetings and "MACHINE VOTES"
APRIL 4, 2018 DOG PARK MACHINE VOTE GETS 1686 VOTERS TO THE POLLS
- Was 2019 any different? 532+ voted in Referendum - could have fit into Auditorium???
- And dogs outscore school budget 2018 25% to 9% (2018 Referendum results above).
- Barely more budget Referendum voters in 2017 than could be allowed (sitting) in the high school auditorium in 2017...2015 School Budget goes down - 2nd referendum 688 y, 313 n, total of 1001 votes.
- The reason, in part, for an ATBM/Referendum required via Charter Revision was Weston High School Auditorium capacity (originally 600, now in the 500's);
- This laudable change then included a QUORUM of 130 (not a unanimous vote of second Charter Revision Commission);
- An example of a way to muzzle the voice of the people. When will the stay home from ATBM folks get the message NOT to take their freedoms for granted?
NEW LINK DIRECT TO VIMEO
Here is the link to Vimeo for Selectmen's Meeting videos.
Board of Selectmen meeting notes: Town of Weston website the second official "posting" location. PLEASE CONSIDER: IN YOUR TAX BILL THESE SUGGESTIONS
Millennials (they are "GenY") come after GenX
Sustainability Study by About Weston
Town of Weston Sustainability Committee.
Strategic Planning Committee
PLANNING & ZONING
HOW IS WESTON, CONNECTICUT LIKE A MALL?
Our answer: Local Plan cannot be "inconsistent" with CT Plan of C&D...see link below!
Link to our reports on P&Z Commission - its Plan of C & D progress. How does it relate to CT Plan? New LEGEND? 2015 survey by O.L.R on sidewalks .
CLICK HERE FOR "2020": ABOUT WESTON'S 2020 PLAN...where do visual, historic and/or architectural review aspects enter into the mix?
Compare our approach this time to the way we did our version of the Plan in 2010!
The decennial "plan" process is the "P" in "P&Z" - "Z" for "zoning" as eventual implementation occurs. NEW page for P&Z's Town Plan update.
Elsewhere - since Weston is not an island, an example. Zoning issue: http://www.stamfordadvocate.com/news/article/Faulty-Stamford-foundation-remains-unresolved-6730458.phpLINK TO TOWN OF EASTON DRAFT TOWN PLAN UPDATE: http://www.eastonct.gov/sites/eastonct/files/u446/easton_plan_of_conservation_and_development_2018-2028_revised_draft.pdf
- Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations (ACIR) now monthly online meetings! CCOGS link here. WestCOG link here.
- BRUNO (l.) confused. Why not have a floating zone for dogs? Meanwhile, 8-24 negative opinion means Special Town Meeting required for dog park on Town land to continue as Town requested. WOOF!!!
- Temporary structures for elderly - CT model regulation coming...Proposed SB922 (did it pass?) on the way to the floor. Dec.5, 2016 meeting did not seem to explain how this is going to work...in Weston Ans. not.
- NEW CT STORM WATER REGULATIONS TO APPLY AS OF APRIL 1, 2017
- Cluster zoning in the pipeline at P&Z? YUP. Starred in first new Town Plan "conversation" April 22nd! Compare the open space linkage above with STORM WATER REGULATIONS INFO...already shown as a link above
- Anything new on the horizon? From an aerial perspective? We noticed a bill to authorize regional planning organizations or COGs as they are called now, top charge for their services (in addition to dues).
- Town Plan Toolkit: What are some things we could add to it? Any ideas?
- Focus on the central part of town also at first Town Plan "conversation" in addition to cluster - don't you think we need to draw a map of where we are talking about? We need a planning-size map.
- Are the Town of Weston zoning and subdivision regulations up to date?
- Seeking out pathways to healthy living! And here is a story about "special natural characteristics" - http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-35148909
NEW TO US - Merritt Parkway friends page!!!
All modes: To include bicycle-pedestrian to Federal Railroad planning NE Corridor. Some CT hot development issues - transportation.
How about Rhode Island's use for autonomous vehicles? https://www.theday.com/statenortheast-news/20181204/rhode-island-awards-contract-to-run-self-driving-shuttles
21st Century Unions
Public sector unions fighting for their place everywhere but not in CT, in my opinion. C.R.S.A. to force retirement saving? Or not?
Wild Things review
"WATCH DOG" AGENCIES HERE
When is a public-private partnership not considered a quasi-governmental agency??? Good luck finding out!
"Woofsite" contains new & historical SP Kennel, plus Weston CT Dog & Dog Park news. Next, Yukon Quest cinnamon buns, anyone?
WWHD - offices on Bayberry Lane, Westport.
"ABOUT TOWN" INTERVIEWS EDWIN HENION, CHIEF OF POLICE, TOWN OF WESTON, CONNECTICUT:
Town" is honored to present this interview with Edwin Henion, Chief of
Police of the Town of Weston, Connecticut, and a former Lieutenant
Colonel for the Connecticut State Police.
In this informative interview Chief Henion keeps us up to date on the numerous ways in which a small town police force can, and in this case does, keep its residents, visitors, and those passing through town safe!
Recorded September 17, 2019
"ABOUT TOWN" INTERVIEWS THE HONORABLE TONI BOUCHER, FORMER CONNECTICUT STATE SENATOR AND STATE REPRESENTATIVE:
Town" is privileged to present this interview with the Honorable Toni
Boucher, former Connecticut State Senator for the 26th District and
former Connecticut State Representative for the 143rd District.
In this informative interview she provides valuable insights on the 2019 Session of the State Legislature, which has addressed issues affecting all Connecticut residents. The State's economy, its budget, taxes, jobs, cost of living, and the possibilities of highway tolls and regionalization of school systems, are among the many issues she informs us about.
And for further perspectives on these and other important matters, please visit her website, connecticutinsights.com.
Recorded June 27, 2019
"ABOUT TOWN" PRESENTS A VERY SPECIAL INTERVIEW WITH ALLEN SWERDLOWE, FAIA, CHAIRMAN OF THE BUILDING COMMITTEE OF THE TOWN OF WESTON:
Allen Swerdlowe, FAIA, Principal Architect of D7Architects (www.d7architects.com),
serves as Chairman of the Building Committee of the Town of Weston,
Connecticut. In this very special interview he provides visions
for the future of central Weston, and insights into how planning for the
future of a mostly rural small town should be done.
Recorded April 23, 2019.
The Honorable Gail
Lavielle represents the 143rd District in Connecticut's House of
Representatives, which includes most of Wilton and parts of Norwalk and
Westport. She will be sworn in for her fifth term in the House in
Representative Lavielle was recently appointed as Ranking Member of the Connecticut General Assembly’s joint Appropriations Committee, a role she will assume when the 2019 session opens on January 9. She will also continue to serve on the Education and Transportation Committees.
"About Town" is honored to present this interview with Representative Lavielle.
Recorded December 24, 2018.
Joe Lametta recently retired as Director of Public Works for the Town of Weston, Connecticut, concluding a distinguished 40 year career of service to the Town.
In this very special interview he provides fascinating
insights into the varied functions of a municipal public works department; on
how Weston has remained "ahead of the curve" when it comes to
environmental matters; and his thoughts on what may lie ahead concerning infrastructure
and other matters of import to the Town.
Recorded September 21, 2018
TOWN" PRESENTS A VERY SPECIAL INTERVIEW WITH THE HONORABLE TONY HWANG, CONNECTICUT STATE SENATOR, 28th DISTRICT:
Town" is delighted to present this interview with the
Honorable Tony Hwang, Connecticut State Senator for the 28th District. Senator Hwang
provides us with exceptional insights into the very major issues
the State is currently faced with, and the keys to how they should be resolved. Don't
miss this exceptionally informative interview, about matters that will
affect all of us.
Recorded August 23, 2018.
TOWN" INTERVIEWS THE HONORABLE CHRISTOPHER SPAULDING, Ph.D., FIRST SELECTMAN, TOWN OF WESTON, CONNECTICUT:
"About Town" is honored to present this interview with the recently elected First Selectman of the Town of Weston, Connecticut, the Honorable Christopher Spaulding, Ph.D.
Among many topics covered in the interview that will be of interest to Westonites and to others interested in small town municipal government, Dr. Spaulding provides us with valuable insight into his approaches to the delicate balancing acts leadership of local govenment requires.
TOWN" INTERVIEWS JIM LISHER, CHAIRMAN, TELE-HEALTH SENIORS WELLNESS PROGRAM OF NEW CANAAN, CONNECTICUT:
"About Town" is delighted to present this interview with Jim Lisher, chairman of the Tele-Health Seniors Wellness Program of New Canaan, Connecticut. This highly successful program commenced in 2013, and provides senior citizens with the opportunity, at no cost to them, to have periodic video visits with a nurse, and periodic remote monitoring of vital signs and other health-related information. The goal being to facilitate successful aging in place, while simultaneously improving quality of care and reducing health care costs. After watching this important interview you just may find yourself wanting to inspire the officials of your own town or city to establish a similar program!
INTERVIEWS LYN KIMBERLY, AMERICAN WANDERER, LLC, AND CAMP BERGER OF THE CONNECTICUT STATE GRANGE:
And for more, visit their websites, www.americanwanderer.com and www.campberger.com
For Windows Users (best viewed via Internet Explorer, which will automatically open Windows Media Player and begin playback without waiting for the entire file to download):
For Windows or Apple/Mac users (depending on the software you are using, playback may not begin until the entire file has downloaded, which may take several minutes or more depending on the speed of your internet connection):
INTERVIEWED KAREN TATARKA, DIRECTOR OF THE WESTON PUBLIC LIBRARY: NEWS ON RE-OPENING AFTER RENOVATION
INTERVIEWS COLLEEN PALMER, Ph.D., SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS FOR THE
WESTON (CONNECTICUT) PUBLIC SCHOOLS:
FOOD FOR THOUGHT...
Amy Kalafa serves on the Town Committee overseeing the future of one of the most beautiful properties in the beautiful Town of Weston, Connecticut. Her exceptionally diverse and distinguished background also includes authoring of the book "Lunch Wars: How to Start a School Food Revolution and Win the Battle for Our Children's Health"; creation of the documentary film "Two Angry Moms: Fighting for the Health of America's Children"; and establishment of the related website www.angrymoms.org. She has produced award winning films and television programs, and has written magazine articles related to health education for more than 25 years, and has been featured on Good Morning America, Rachael Ray, Fox News Live, and in USA Today and The New York Times. Don't miss this very special interview! WATCH NOW!
Dr. Floyd Lapp, F.A.I.C.P., is the Executive Director of the South Western Regional Planning Agency (SWRPA). This program provides an informative look at current regional planning issues and activities, with special focus on Hurricane Sandy, and how good planning must address the effects of climate change. WATCH NOW!
PROTECTING YOUR RIGHT TO VOTE!
The Honorable Denise Merrill, Connecticut Secretary of the State, visits "About Town" to discuss what has gone on since she and the administration of Governor Malloy took the helm after the unfortunate voting travesty in Bridgeport on Election Day 2010. Learn about how Secretary Merrill has responded with ideas that can make our democracy here in Connecticut work better! WATCH NOW!!!
Vision and design in the built environment.
Distinguished architect Allen Swerdlowe, AIA (www.d7architects.com) serves as Chairman of the Building Committee and the School Building Committee of the Town of Weston, CT. In this very special interview he presents valuable insights into Weston-specific issues, as well as into the important role that good architectural and urban design can play in both the educational process and in making cities and towns better places to live. WATCH NOW!
A. Use our search box at the top of the index page - enter key word (s). Sub-pages related to your search will appear...
B. CT APPOINTED COMMISSIONS (i.e. A.C.I.R.); C.G.A. SESSIONS, 2015 onward - easiest to find using search box. Other related governmental links might pop up in a search as well.
C. WE ARE A SOURCE OF INFORMATION: Borrow our research or use our artwork - just attribute it properly - let us know if you are using it and we will consider linking to your website!QUESTIONS? Our e-mail web-contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
- REPORT news related to Weston, CT that About Weston observes, in person, on TV or online.
- ONLINE link to our Public Access TV interview show "About Town" which questions policy-makers and people in a position to implement plans here.
- WEB-CONTACT - please, don't be afraid to ask for help explaining anything you do not understand on this website: email@example.com